Annotated Bibliography:

1. Developer’s Guide. (n.d.). Retrieved February 09, 2018 from

Summary: this provide a basic guide for developer interested in using Google Maps API to embed the functions of Google Transit in their own services and products. Some of its instructions grant our insights into the algorithm and variables of Google Transit, which turns out very helpful for our subsequent analysis.

2. Google Launches Public Transport Route Planner. (2015, Aug 25). Daily Nation Retrieved from

Summary: This is a news of Google starting Google Transit service in Nairobi, Kenya. This establishes Google Transit as an independently named, embedded transportation planner service inside Google Maps.

3. GPS Algorithms. (2015, November 20). Retrieved March 27, 2018, from

Summary: This is a brief introduction about how the performance metrics of GPS endows location accuracy. Some of the formula and mathematical models in this introduction provides background for our analysis of the algorithm and architecture on the GPS pillar.

4. GTFS Application Notes: How is organized? (2015, November 25). Retrieved from

Summary: This is a breakdown of the data structure of GTFS. The author also includes some codes behind the service, which, database-wise, helps us have a better grasp of the algorithm.

5. Google Maps. (n.d.). Retrieved February 09, 2018, from

Summary: This is an integral source for our research where developer shares the codes behind Google Maps and its various components including front end and database. It is the foundation for mapping out different elements, inputs and outputs of the architecture and algorithms.

6. Google Maps Real-time Transit Info Is Now Available In More Places. (n.d.). Retrieved March 27, 2018, from

Summary: This provides an overview of the types of services and features available in Google Transit, thereby we are able to draw a portrait of different types of users who demand different aspects of Google Transit.

7. Király, A., & Abonyi, J. (2015). Redesign of the supply of mobile mechanics based on a novel genetic optimization algorithm using Google Maps API. Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, 38, 122-130.

Summary: This article deals with route optimization and customization solutions extended from Google Maps API. We apply some of its discovery in analyzing the route optimization algorithms behind Google Transit.

8. Solomen, P. (2013). Designing a GUI interface and Presenting Data in Google Maps API. Retrieved March 26, 2018, from

Summary: This essay investigates how to construct the graphical user interface of google maps using Google Maps API, a developer tool that Google provides. It offers insight into what architecture of Google Maps’ user interface is and what its components are(the languages that the interface of Google Maps is coded in).

9. Roush, W. (n.d.). Welcome to Google Transit: How (and Why) the Search Giant is Remapping Public Transportation. Retrieved April 19, 2018.

Summary: This article combs through the history and development of the idea of General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS), from which we obtain a general sense of the history of Google Transit.

10. Roth, M. (2010, January 05). How Google and Portland’s TriMet Set the Standard for Open Transit Data. Retrieved April 19, 2018, from

Summary: This article guides us to some key figures and parties behind the launch of Google Transit and where the notions of transit data sharing came from.

Other sources:

1. Accessing Public Transport System Connectivity Based on Google Transit Data. (n.d.) Retrieved March 27, 2018, from

2. Announcing Lyft Navigation, Built with Google Maps. (n.d.). Retrieved March 27, 2018, from

3. Farber, S., Marino, M.G. (2017). Transit Accessibility, Land Development and Socioeconomic Priority: A Typology of Planned Station Catchment Areas in the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area. Journal of Transport and Land User 10.1: 879-902.

4. Fang, K., Zimmerman, S. (2015). Public Transport Service Optimization and System Integration. China Transport Topics, no. 14.

5. General Transit Feed Specification. (2018, February 10). Retrieved from

6. Getting an Uber in Google Maps Just Got Easier. (2017, January 12). Retrieved March 27, 2018, from

7. Google Code Archive – Long-term storage for Google Code Project Hosting. (n.d.). Retrieved from

8. Got GTFS Data? Learn How to Make it Work for You. (2017, June 26).

9. Google Transit Feed Specification. (n.d.). Retrieved from

10. GPS: The Global Positioning System. (n.d.). Retrieved March 27, 2018, from

11. Intellectual Property issues – Fusion Tables Help. (n.d.). Retrieved March 30, 2018, from

12. Lecture 2 – GTFS Basics. (2017, August 26). Retrieved from

13. Overview | Static Transit | Google Developers. (n.d.). Retrieved from

14. Su, G., et al. (2010). Designing a route planner to facilitate and promote cycling in Metro Vancouver, Canada. Transportation research part A: policy and practice 44.7. 495-505.

15. Transit | Google Developers. (n.d.). Retrieved from

16. Transit — Google Maps. (n.d.). Retrieved March 27, 2018, from















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